建设服务型工商的问题及对策研究 摘 要
20世纪90年代以来，我国受英国和美国学者关于公共服务取向模式和新公 共服务政府等一系列理论的影响，对在我国政治经济体制改革中建立服务型政 府，进行了理论上的研究和实践上的探索，逐步形成了有我国特色的服务型政府 建设理论。建设服务型政府的动力因素来自于国际竞争的压力、日益累积而趋于 激化的社会矛盾、人们对现代社会组成及运行的基本知识和观念的积累成熟。同 时，我国还存在着很多制约公共管理发展和政府转型的体制性因素。这些因素促 使建设服务型政府的研究探索升温。建设服务型政府要求每个政府部门都要对自 身的管理思路、管理领域、管理方式进行重新调整、定位。工商行政管理机关， 作为政府公共服务架构的重要部门，承担着整顿和规范市场经济秩序，营造公平 竞争市场环境的主要任务，对市场主体和交易活动直接干预，代表国家行使调控 市场经济的职能，影响面非常广。因此，研究建设服务型工商过程中存在的问题 以及解决对策，对其他职能部门有着重要的借鉴意义，具有代表性。2008年， 工商管理部门停止征收“两费”和“新三定方案”的出台，为我国工商管理部门 职能转型提供了一个新的契机。面对新的工作任务和目标，结合现实条件对工商 行政管理机关的职责进行定位，找出转型中存在的问题及原因，针对问题形成解 决对策，成为现在亟需解决的课题。
本文试图以新公共服务理论为理论基石，结合我国的现实，对如何建设服务 型工商进行研究，提出了相应的对策。全文共分五部分。第一部分是前言。简要 介绍了选题背景及研究内容，归纳国内外学者对如何建设服务型政府的研究现 状。第二部分是建设服务型政府的理论与实践。阐述了我国建设服务型政府的理 论基础、意义、内涵特征、主要任务、方法以及对工商管理转型的启示。第三部 分是我国工商管理的发展现状及建设服务型工商的背景。介绍了我国工商行政管 理机构设置、职能配置的演变过程和新形势下工商管理的职能定位和发展趋势; 论述了建设服务型工商的内在动因、外部要求和重要机遇。第四部分是建设服务 型工商的问题。具体分析了我国工商管理向服务型政府转变过程中存在的服务意 识缺乏、职能定位不准、监督激励机制不足、人员素质不高、法律体系不健全、 服务手段措施不够、社会环境不佳等问题及其原因。第五部分是发展服务型工商 管理的对策建议。针对本文分析的问题，比较详尽地论述了九个方面应采取的对 策：一是要转变观念理念，为转型消除思想禁锢；二是要深化机构改革，为转型 构筑体制保障；三是要完善监督机制，为转型切断腐败根基；四是要完善激励机 制，为转型提供动力支持；五是要政务公开透明，为转型指明监督方式；六是要 提高人员素质，为转型打好坚实基础；七是要运用新型手段，为转型注入生命活 力；八是树立法治观念，为转型建立法治体系；九是要优化社会环境，为转型解 除后顾之忧。随着我国社会经济的不断发展，工商管理职能定位和监管管理手段 必将随之不断调整，因而建设服务型工商管理机关将是一个永不停止的动态过 程。
Countermeasures to the Problems of Constructing Service-oriented Industry and Commerce Abstract
Since the 1990s, China has been affected by a series of theories proposed by the British and American scholars on public service-oriented model” and 4<the new public Service-oriented government”. In order to establish a service-oriented government in political and economic systems reform, China has conducted a theoretical study and practical exploration, and has gradually formed a Chinese characteristic theory of establishing service-oriented government. The dynamic factors of establishing service-oriented government is from the pressure of international competition, the increasing and intensifying social contradictions ,and the mature ideas and the basic knowledge to the composition and the running of modem society. Meanwhile, in China, there are still a lot of institutional factors restricting government transition and the development of public administration. These factors prompt to study and explore the building of service-oriented government more and more popular. To establish the service-oriented government, each government department needs to readjust and reconfirm their own management ideas, management fields, and management ways. Industry and commerce administrative departments, as the key departments of the government's public service framework, undertaking the main task of rectifying and standardizing the market economic order and creating a fair competitive market environment, direct intervening the market players and the trade activities, on behalf of the state to exercise the functions of regulating the market economy, owning a very large influence. So, studying the problems of constructing service-oriented industry and commerce and the countermeasures is representative and have an important referential significance to other functional departments. In 2008，the industry and commerce administrative departments stopped levying a "two charges" and introduced "The new three fixed
program", which provide a new opportunity to the functional transition of China's
industry and commerce administrative departments. Facing the new tasks and objectives, what we need to resolve urgently is to affirm the responsibility of industry and commerce administration combined with the realistic conditions，identify the problems and the reasons in transition, find the countermeasures to the problem.
This article attempts to take new public service theory as the theoretical foundation, combines with the reality of our country, to study how to construct Service-oriented industry and commerce, and put forward the corresponding countermeasures. Full-text is divided into five parts .The first part is the preface, briefly introduces the background and contents of the selected topic, and summarizes in the research actuality of domestic and foreign scholars on how to build service-oriented government. The second part is some theory and practice of establishing the service-oriented government. That elaborates on the theoretical foundation, meaning, content features, methods of constructing China’s service-oriented government and the inspiration to industry and commerce administrative transition. The third part is the development actuality of China's industry and commerce administration and the background of constructing service-oriented industry and commerce, describes the evolution of China's industry and commerce administrative organization set and function deployment, and the industry and commerce administrative development trend and the function orientation under the new situation, discusses in intrinsic motivation, external requirements and important opportunity of constructing service-oriented industry and commerce. The fourth part is the problems of constructing service-oriented industry and commerce. Concretely analyze the problems and the reasons in the process of China's industry and commerce management transform to service-oriented government，the problem such as lack of service awareness, functional position was inaccurate, lack of supervision and encouragement mechanism, the quality of personnel is not high, the legal system is not perfect, service measure is not enough, social environment is not very well and so on. The fifth part is the countermeasure of developing service-oriented industry and commerce management. Aim at solving the problems mentioned in this article, concretely elaborates on the countermeasures in nine facets: First is to change the concepts，and eliminate closed-mind for transition; the second is to deepen tiie institutional reform, and build institutional guarantee for transition; the third is to improve the supervision mechanism, and cut off the roots of corruption for transition; the fourth is to improve the incentive mechanism, and provide the impetus for transition; the fifth is to make government affairs open and transparent, and point out the mode of supervision; the sixth is to improve the quality of personnel，and lay a solid foundation for transition; the seventh is to use the new means, and breathe into the vitality; the eighth is to build up legal concepts, and establish a legal system for transition; the ninth is to optimize social environment ,and get rid of troubles back at home. With the continuous development of our social economy, industry and commerce administrative functions and supervised means must be constantly adjusted. Thus the building of service-oriented industry and commerce administrative organs will be a never-ending dynamic process.